A reflection of MITE6301 sessions

Module Code and Title:

MITE 6301 Curriculum Reform and Information and Communication Technology

Term: May 2005

University No.: 1988201159

Assignment Due Date: 20-07-2005

Session 1: What is Curriculum Reform (25 / 05 / 2005)

What I already know (K)

² The 1st five year plan - " Information Technology for Learning in a New Era: 5-year Strategy 1998/99 to 2002/03"

² The 2nd five year plan - " Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology: 5-year Strategy 2004/05 to 2008/09"

² Using ICT to make a paradigm shift in education system

² Using ICT can enhance the efficiency and quality of teaching.

² Using ICT changes the way of learning.

What I want to know (W)

² What is self-directed learning ?

² The role of teachers in teaching with ICT.

² The role of students in learning with ICT.

² How to transform from traditional teaching approach into a new teaching approach.

² How to solve and face problems aroused in teaching with ICT.

² How to incorporate ICT into the school curriculum.

What I have learnt (L)

² To develop a weblog.

² 21st century is an Age of Learning.

² We should have positive attitude towards a paradigm shift in education system.

² The need in education reform and integrate ICT into our education


As the 21st century is an Age of Learning, we should try our best to cope with the explosion of information. Students learning in a traditional approach cannot catch up with the pace of the changing world. With the assistance of ICT, information and knowledge can be obtained in a more efficient and effective way.

Curriculum reform movement : In 1989, school in US were made to ready for students to learn. The responsibility of goals was teachers, parents, students and all community members. The readiness involves academic knowledge, skills, health, confidence, social competence.

Several themes are common among curriculum reform in science, mathematics and thinking across disciplines. These themes are:

· learning to think is an overall educational goal with particular significance in mathematics and science learning,

· a constructivist approach provides students with an active role in making meaning as well as learning,

· constructivist student learning requires the implementation of different teaching methods, and

· learning fundamentally important information at higher levels of understanding is preferable to encyclopedic learning of large quantities of information, or more succinctly, "Less is more."

Fullan's and Stiegelbauer's The New Meaning of Educational Change (1991) stated that among the barriers to change are

1) the beliefs and values on the part of everyone involved,

2) the lack of teacher preparation to teach constructively,

3) the need to reeducate students to their role in learning constructively,

4) the need for new instructional, curricular and assessment materials and high

learning outcomes and expectations to support the teaching and learning changes,


5) the tensions of instituting the new while operating in the old education system.

Other barriers are lack of preparation, new expectation of students, lack of compatible instructional materials, limited budget, rigid regulations.

The process of change :

1) systematic outlook is essential.

2) empowerment of teacher.

3) change in culture. e.g. role of teacher.

Edutopia provides innovative ways of ICT such as GPS system, Internet, new visualization technologies, computer and multimedia, digital camera, probeware, video conferencing.

Science, optics and you is a very good example of e-learning. It provides student many activities, such as inquiry on binoculars, kaleidoscopes.

The use of ICT in Hong Kong education can be found in the Learning to Learn :The way forward in curriculum development on P.88-90. IT facilitates student learning on Presentations, Multimedia learning packing, simulation and modeling and Internet.

Session 2: e-learning as a Model for Curriculum Reform (01/ 06 / 2005)

What I already know (K)

² Some examples of e-learning.

² Two Learning approaches: Traditional instructional approach and constructive approach.

² The major problems in implementing ICT in schools.

What I want to know (W)

² What is meant by e-learning?

² How do we use e-learning effectively?

² What are the features that teachers and students found most important in an IT in education system respectively?

What I have learnt (L)

² e-learning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn.

² Different types of e-learning resources.

² Key elements in an e-learning environment.

² e-learning changes the roles of traditional uses of computer and ICT.

² How can we evaluate technology applications.

² The features that teachers found most important in an IT in education system.

² The features that students found most important in an IT in education system.


e-learning is a new model in teaching and learning. It means to learn through the electronic environment. It may be the web, the virtual environment, electronic discussion group, online course, project, etc.

e-learning may give rise to an opportunity in curriculum reform. The change may be happen in the school management, in the teaching and learning method, the role of teacher and the role of student, the content of each subject to be taught. The school management may be more rely on the technology. It will save the manpower, and give accurate in data collection, such as number of lateness, students’ examination marks. The use of technology can help us in the data analysis with the use of graph, tables. The role of teacher and student will change. The teacher in past was knowledge source, but now the student may be more familiar with some topic which is easy and in large quantity in the Web. The student are asked to explore, experience and express the Internet, it become more student-centered. The lesson cannot be going to the same standard to each student. Each student may have own pace. The assessment in the learning process, e.g. collaborative project learning, is very difficult. The content in the science is wide and board. It emphasize on the science process skill, scientific method, problem solving. The example of ICT use can be data logger, visualization software, web, virtual laboratory, modeling software.

A good website used in the lesson depends on the lesson objective. If the lesson teach to use the balance, the video typed explanation is clear, the scaffold provided. If the lesson teach to analyze the experimental data, the website should provided graph or analysis materials.

Based on the relating brain compatible learning principles, a good web activities include : meaning and relevance, emotions, repetition and rehearsal, prior knowledge, adequate time, immediate feedback, collaboration, reflection, safe and nurturing environment, active learning, choice, pattern seeking, chunking.

Based on the multiple intelligences, a internet may classified into : verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematics, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist.

Nine steps to a successful Internet-based project :

1. prepare for the lesson

2. start with the end in mind: understand the curriculum goals, content standard

3. research other’s Internet project: global schoolhouse network,

4. choose the type of Internet project

-Does the web site help in goals?

-Does the web allow interaction?

-is the web visually appealing?

-Easy to navigate?

-Fast loading?

-Web allow students to publish their work?

-Activate more than one of the multiple intelligences?

-Is the information verifiable?

-Consistent with current brain-based teaching?

-Meet the standard goal or goal can be met better using other medium?

5. start with small and specific

6. set due dates

7. give feedback to students

8. share the results

9. reflect on and celebrate learning

Session 3 : Flexible Learning (08 / 06 / 2005)

What I already know (K)

² The meaning of e-learning

What I want to know (W)

² The meaning of flexible learning

² How to implement Learning to learn in school

² Trend of ICT reform

² How to evaluate web-resources

What I have learnt (L)

² The meaning of flexible learning

² How to use flexible learning in Hong Kong

² Learning through the Internet

² Innovative online education

² Evaluation of Web-resources for teaching and learning including the use of rubrics


Flexible learning is to support different styles of learning e.g. e-learning. The driving force emphasize on meeting client needs and convergence of technologies. The learning choices are great including curriculum, content, length. Greater flexibility in where and when to train is needed. It allows greater variety of learners and in the how of training e.g. self-instructional learning resources. The role of teachers shifts to encourage learner-centered. The organization system and structures should be flexible. The Policy is to integrate each of the above elements together. Use of appropriate technologies, strategies and collaboration is important.

Flexible learning can be enhanced with the use of technologies. In my school, project learning with 3 subject collaborated is used. The project is open-ended. Students need to search for information. Teacher acts as a collaborator and knowledge mentor. The assessment is continuous and based on the performance in presentation, website building, content, etc.

The teacher needs to know how to implement the flexible learning in the classroom. How to make progress and manage the flexible learning? The number of computer and the arrangement of technology is important in effective flexible learning setup. The ability of students to access and extract useful information, the time management are also needed to take account. The curriculum should be redesigned so as to reduce some content for more time for student in flexible learning.

The teacher needs to have a clear understanding in Bloom’s taxonomy in deciding the use of ICT. The questions we asked may be in terms of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. It can be low level thinking or high level thinking.

Session 4 : The impact of the paradigm shift (15 / 06 / 2005)

What I already know (K)

² All schools implement ICT in order to cope with the Government's five-year strategy.

² Besides textbooks and notes, teachers sometimes use ICT resources and software to assist teaching.

² Most teachers use software supplied by publishers or purchased from the outsiders, but do not tailor-made courseware.

² Using ICT can enhance the efficiency and quality of teaching.

² Using ICT changes the way of learning.

What I want to know (W)

² How can we use ICT in teaching efficiently?

² What will be changed from the impact of ICT on education?

² How can the concept of computer support for learning be widely facilitated?

What I have learnt (L)

² Learning in a digital age

² Student learning in computer-based learning environment

² Impact of ICT of students' learning

² Characteristics of emergent practices


Paradigm shift involves a change of classroom activity, teacher role, instructional emphasis, student role, concept of knowledge, demonstration of success, assessment, and technology use.

Classroom activity is from teacher-centered to learner-centered. Teacher role is from fact teller, source of all answer to collaborator, mediator, mentor coach and sometimes co-learner and knowledge navigator. Instructional emphasis is from facts, memorization to inquiry, invention and transformation of facts. Student role is from passive recipient of information, reproducing knowledge to active participant in the learning process. Concept of knowledge is from comprehension to application, synthesis and evaluation. Demonstration of success is from norm referenced to criterion reference. Assessment is from examination to portfolios and performance of product based. Technology is from drill and practice, rote learning, presenting via PowerPoint to collaboration, expression, sharing of data and e-learning.

Analysis of technology and practice can be using the matrix of practice and technology, in terms of old and new. The six dimensions to understand the innovativeness can be used for teacher, principal, policy maker to check their state and have a clear view to go to high level. The six dimensions are goals, teacher role, student role, ICT use, learning outcome, connectedness.

Learning with ICT aims to make learning become : a social process, active, either be linear or non-linear, integrative, based on learner ability, interest, and culture, assessment through task completion, products, real problem solving of both individual and group efforts.

In HongKong, ICT connectedness and hardware is developed to basic requirement. The educational software is not enough in most subjects. Effort is needed. The role of student is changed very slowly to be an active participator. The attitudes of parents, teacher and community should be changed. The advantage of implementing ICT in learning is not seen very fast. The whole process needed time and patient. The education department, CDC, book publisher, examination and assessment authority should work together. More research on ICT use in different subjects is needed.

Session 5 : Teacher Perspectives and Curriculum Reform (22 / 06 / 2005)

What I already know (K)

² The main characteristics of 21st century in education of the world are reform and integrating ICT into education.

What I want to know (W)

² How can we integrate ICT into my school?

What I have learnt (L)

² Emerging ICT practices

² ICT and the Curriculum of the Future

² Teacher perspective and curriculum reform

² collaborative involvement in curriculum

² Curriculum reform in Hong Kong.


Game-To-Teach is developed by Microsoft Company. It covers mainly science subject, such as biology and physics. It is very interesting and interactive and this will motivate many students. However, not all content or curriculum can use this method. This will become boring for long use.

Teacher role has changed in curriculum reform. In past, teacher acts as knowledge transmitter, content expect, sources of answer. He can control and direct all aspects of learning. But now, teacher can be transmitter who gives lecture and information. Teacher can be facilitator who discusses with students. Teacher can be resource person who can advise on sources of information. Teacher can be counselor who can advise on developing one’s interest. Teacher can be assessor who can inform students of progress.

The CDC learning to learn document is valuable to read. Our students prepare the challenges of globalization, the impact of IT, the rising need for moral considerations. The curriculum reform will create more space in curriculum planning and implementation, re-engineering work process in schools, reducing tests, examination, and dictations, planning the time table flexibility, making good use of grants, sharing good practices and learning and teaching method.

The curriculum reform involves nine generic skills(collaboration, skills, critical thinking, creativity, communication skills, information technology skills, numeracy skills, problem-solving skills, self-management skills, study skills), eight Key Learning Areas(Chinese language education, English language education, Mathematics education, Personal, social, and humanities education, Science education, technology education, Arts education, Physical education), four key tasks(moral and civic education, reading, project learning, using IT), five learning experiences(ethics, intellect, physique, social skills, aesthetics)

The change and sustainability in curriculum can be supported by clear guiding principles if they are to be carried through effectively. Curriculum reform is a continuous improvement process. It takes more than a decade to produce a new generation. Positive thinking with patience, celebration of small success is essential. Schools will be ready to use their professional autonomy to strike a balance between recommendations of the CDC’s new curriculum guides and school-based curriculum development.

Critical factors to success will be changes in university admission, parent’s understanding and support, government support, teacher staff development, community organization support, assessment reform, support for academically lower achievers, etc.

The curriculum is not a document but moves to the concept as “learning experiences” to enhance the effectiveness of learning. The learning experiences are a nexus of aims, learning processes, learning contents, learning environment.

Learning, teaching and assessment are core activities which have impact on student learning. Actions help to move away from knowledge transmission to a balance of knowledge acquisition and knowledge construction. The actions includes (1)learning opportunity and learning environment, (2)school based curriculum development, (3)collaborative lesson preparation, (4)learning time and time table, (5)effective learning and teaching strategies, (6)assessment of learning, (7)four key tasks(moral and civic education, reading, project learning, IT for interactive learning), (8)effective use of textbooks and learning/teaching resources, (9)catering for learning differences, (10)homework, (11)life wide learning opportunities for whole person development, (12) smooth transition between kindergarten and primary school, primary and secondary school, (13)home-school cooperation.

The support for teachers and schools are (1)curriculum guide and document, (2)teacher and principal development program, (3)textbooks and resources, (4)collaborative research and development project, (5)curriculum bank, (6) school-based curriculum development support, (7) creating time and space for teachers and learners, (8)dissemination strategies and networks, (9) local and international consultancies, (10) partnership-all to contribute.

ICT can use in communication between different schools. Teachers can share their strategies in teaching e.g. in HKeducationCITY. HkeducationCity also give information on text book, The curriculum guides may be put on to the web server for teacher’s reference. The curriculum bank of authentic exemplars showing how students learn in the curriculum can be found in It also gave information on life-wide learning activities.

ICT helps learning by providing audio/visual aides for difficult concept, searching for information, allowing students to work at their own pace, interaction between learners, resources and teachers, collaboration, facilitating the acquisition of information, the development of critical thinking, and knowledge building under guidance. However, excessive and improper use of IT becomes annoying with little and no educational value.